英國台灣大不同之育兒經 – 政策與系統

on Mar 15 in 世界大不同, [育兒經] 愛兒 tagged , , by

在英國當媽真的是比在台灣當幸福多了,英國政府對於媽媽和小孩的重視與照顧真的是無微不至。
打從懷孕起就能有九個月的產假,而且是自己高興何時開始放就開始放,懷孕症狀嚴重的媽媽們可以選擇懷孕期間開始放假,症狀輕微的就可以生產之後才開始放假,雇主一句話都不能吭,因為準媽媽們有政府全力的支持著,這是政策。
媽媽們生產之後可以和雇主商量,改從全職變成兼職。一旦媽媽們表明了這個意願,雇主也不能說不准,更不能因此不雇用,必須與媽媽協商並在工作時數與薪資間達成共識。
英國普遍的觀念就是媽媽們該多陪孩子,對孩子有正面的影響,發展身心健全的人格,成為對國家社會有用的人,從政府的角度來看,這樣才是減低社會成本的根本之道,因此政策極鼓勵女性在生產之後做兼職而非全職。
甚至如果父母親都沒了工作,尤其現在經濟這麼慘,這種情況恐怕會愈越來越多,政府會優先對有孩子的家庭提供房貸補助或者提供住屋,安排應徵工作,提供各種相關補助金等。
英國政府提供很好的育兒補助金,讓媽媽們無後顧之憂,當真無法兼顧工作與孩子,政府就情願妳辭職在家專心快樂地帶小孩,錢的事情就留給政府操心吧。
在我的團體裡有不少媽媽們至今都尚未恢復工作,或者是決定了不回去工作,連兼職都不想。
台灣的媽媽們並沒有這種選擇,沒人有那個膽或信任敢說:「孩子就交給政府養吧!」以目前台灣的經濟與政策來看,常需要父母雙份全薪才養得起家,若單要靠育兒補助金,孩子恐怕會餓死。

懷孕時有「準媽媽教室」,生產後有「新手媽媽教室」和各種嬰兒俱樂部及支持團體,圖書館也有爲小朋友開設的兒歌與故事時間,這些都是政府提供的免費的資源。
目的不僅是傳達正確的育兒知識與方式,提供求助與諮詢的管道,更是為了讓媽媽們自成互助會,多出來交些朋友,和那些人生上也正面臨類似情況的媽媽們一起交流一下,大家互相交換想法與育兒經驗,最重要的是新手媽媽心理獲得的支持,這是最有效降低「產後憂鬱症」的辦法,進而減輕國家健保系統的負擔。
我自己帶愛兒至今能夠無需翻看育兒書籍靠的就是這些媽媽團體。
因為我們的孩子年齡都相差不遠,每週見面的時候,看比愛兒大一個月的孩子在做些什麼,我心裡就有個底愛兒接下來將會有怎樣的進展,會面臨什麼樣的改變,可能會有哪些問題,有哪些好物值得添購。
如果遇到問題,我也都是請教其他媽媽去,多一個腦筋集思廣益就多一點辦法,我個人覺得這些媽媽們比書籍好用多了。
目前國內多是靠醫院的婦產科自行舉辦小型的準媽媽教室,然後生產之後趁媽媽還在醫院裡休養的時候,做新手媽媽的衛教,但在那之後就幾乎沒有了,只靠較有心的媽媽們自己邀集其他媽媽來聚聚而已,不然就是得付錢去私人機構辦的活動。
這一點我覺得國內地方政府可以多推廣,這些專為媽媽和嬰兒們設計的聚會不花很多錢就能辦得起來,但效益及收穫是非常值得的。

在大環境的硬體設施上,英國政府也是相當盡心的。
除了現有的各鄉鎮都有公園及小孩遊樂區,若有新的建設計畫,建設公司必須依照該地區已有的環境和新計畫的規模大小,每幾戶人家就得提供一所學校,每幾戶人家就得建設一個公園等,其中有幾戶必須挪做政府社會福利可以運用的住屋。建設公司不能只顧自己的利益,不是他們高興蓋多寬就多寬,必須考量該地區未來平衡的發展。
另外整個社區的規劃也必須為殘障人士等著想,路面必須平整暢通,適合推車,輪椅及小孩步行。
走在台灣的騎樓裡,這一個店家堆高了兩個階梯,下一家又和馬路齊,再下一家又高上兩三階,別說殘障人士和嬰兒推車,就是大人自己走路也都得注意著,咱們的大環境還不是很能夠讓殘障人士及弱勢團體方便進出.

退休福利好亦有間接的影響,讓祖父母可以安心退休養老,專心含飴弄孫,那自然就成了年輕一輩的得力助手。
年輕的父母們不僅可以省下保母費,把小孩交給自己最信任的家人更減輕了心理上的擔憂.

這不是一天兩天或者改變一兩件事就可以達成的,這得要是整個社會價值觀,民風,政府政策及社會福利等配套措施都成熟到一個階段才能夠提供這樣完整的福利.台灣這方面的政策與知識普及化都還很有進步的空間.
不過話又說回來,社會福利太好也是有缺點的,英國就養著一堆好吃懶做,只想靠著政府補助金生活的人.有不少不適任的父母卻為了補助金而不停的生小孩,因為小孩越多補助金就越多,但他們只生不養不教,反而造成社會的問題與負擔.至少咱們台灣人總都是很努力的,唉,難兩全阿.

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